Answered By: APUS Librarians
Last Updated: Oct 13, 2017     Views: 1861

Your style guide will show you example citations for a variety of different source types: articles, books, ebooks, websites, images and more.

To find your style guide,hover over the RESOURCES & SERVICES menu on the library's website. Look beneath WRITING and click the style guide that you need.  Click here to see a list of style guides used by each degree program.

Writing@APUS Style Guide Links

Don't see an example that fits the source you're citing?

When you can't find the example reference or citation model you need in your style guide, the best thing to do is to choose the example that is the most like the source you are using and follow that format. You may need to combine elements of more than one reference format.  In the end, you'll make a bit of an educated guess.

The publishers of the style guides used at APUS have provided some information on this issue:

  • APA (from their APA Style Blog): I can't find the example reference I need in the Publication Manual. What should I do?
  • Bluebook (From the Introduction): "When citing material of a type not explicitly discussed in this book, try to locate an analogous type of authority that is discussed and use that citation form as a model. Always be sure to provide sufficient information to allow the reader to find the material quickly and easily." (pg. 1)
  • Chicago
    • (from the Preface of the 16th edition, quoting their own 1906 maxim): "Rules and regulations . . . . are meant for the average case, and must be applied with a certain degree of elasticity" (pp. xii-xiii).
    • (From Source Citations: An Overview, Section 14.1) "Regardless of the convention being followed, the primary criterion of any source citation information to either lead readers directly to the sources consulted or, for materials that may be readily available, to positively identify the source used, whether these are published or unpublished, in printed or electronic form." (pg. 655)
  • MLA (from Section 5.3 THE LIST OF WORDS CITED, 5.3.1 Introduction):
    • "MLA style provides a flexible, modular format for recording key features of works cited or consulted in the preparation of your research paper." (pg. 129)
    • ""While it is tempting to think that every source has only one complete and correct format for its entry in a list of works cited, in truth there are often several options for recording key features of a work. . . . You may need to improvise when the type of scholarly project or publication medium of a source is not anticipated by this handbook." (pg. 129)
  • Turabian (From Chapters 16 and 18): "The Basic Form."
    • "Although sources and their citations come in almost endless variety, you are likely to use only a few kinds. While you may need to look up details to cite some unusual sources, you can easily learn basic patterns for the few kinds you will use most often." (pg. 145)
    • For detailed info on "The Basic Form" see Chapter 16, pp 144-150 for Notes-Bibliography Style and Chapter 18, pp. 216-222 for Author-Date Style.